Ambrogio Lorenzetti’s frescoes in the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena and the formation of the social ideal of the Renaissance

Dmitrieva, M. I. Freski Lorentsetti v Palazzo Pubblico v Siene i formirovanie obshchestvennogo ideala epokhi Vozrozhdeniya [Ambrogio Lorenzetti’s frescoes in the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena and the formation of the social ideal of the Renaissance]. In: Proslogion: Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Social History and Culture, 2020. Vol. 6 (1). P. 77–96.

Marina Igorevna Dmitrieva, Ph.D., associate professor. Saint Petersburg State University (199034, Universitetskaia nab. 7/9, 199034 St.Petersburg, Russian Federation)

The article is devoted to the study of the influence of the ideological content of the frescoes «The Good and the Bad governments and their effect» by A. Lorenzetti on the ideas of the authors of the city Chronicles of Siena of the 14–15th centuries about society and power. Investigating the problem of «constructing» the social ideal in Renaissance Siena, which is relevant for modern historical science, the author notes the characteristic dualism of the worldview, which is reflected both in the images of Lorenzetti and in the texts of the studied urban «popolani» Chronicles: «good» government opposes «bad», virtues — sins, a peaceful and prosperous city and district — a city and district devastated and ravaged by war. The authors of urban Chronicles not only use the key concepts of «peace», «justice», «common good», «discord», «war», but also literally describe the scenes depicted in the frescoes of the Palazzo Pubblico. The author concludes that the visual images of frescoes created by Lorenzetti based on the ideas of prominent philosophers and religious thinkers of the 13–14th centuries, that they became a link between the theoretical and everyday levels of the trecento mentality, that it was Lorenzetti’s allegories that had a decisive impact on the formation of the social ideal of the Sienese.

Key words: Chronicles of Siena, the frescoes of Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Palazzo Pubblico, Renaissance state


DOI: 10.24411/2500-0926-2021-00003

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Thrymsa, a coin [not] in circulation in northern England»: Source criticism of archbishop Wulfstan’s Norðleoda laga and its monetary systems in the way of social history (England, 10–11th centuries)

Sukhino-Khomenko, D. Thrymsa, a coin [not] in circulation in northern England»: Source criticism of archbishop Wulfstan’s Norðleoda laga and its monetary systems in the way of social history (England, 10–11th centuries), in: Proslogion: Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Social History and Culture, 2021. Vol. 6 (1). P. 8–41.

Denis Sukhino-Khomenko, PhD-student at the University of Gothenburg (Sweden), Department of Historical Studies (Institutionen för historiska studier, Lundgrensgatan 5, 412 61 Göteborg, Sverige)

This article spotlights the thrymsa (OE þryms/trimsa/tryms) as a supposed monetary unit in pre-Norman England and the importance this individual case study may hold for research in early medieval English social history. In the main, Anglo-Saxon monetary system was meticulously reconstructed by Henry Chadwick (1905), but in it the thrymsa appears an anomaly, as it gets only a few mentions in independent sources over the whole documented Old English period. Due to various correspondences in the texts (as, dragma, ¼ stater, (⅓?) solidus, three pence) establishing the thrymsa’s exact value stops at the etymological stage (< Lat. trēmis(sis)). On the face of its marginality, numismatists are for most part little interested in the thrymsa.Nevertheless, its presence in the so-called Norðleoda laga («The Laws of the Northern People», element in York archbishop Wufstan’s (d. 1023) «Compilation on status» believed to contain older material) as the expression of the sums of wergilds has given rise to interpretations of these wergilds with far reaching implications. The article offers an original explanation of the reasons for the thrymsa’s presence and function in the Norðleoda laga. Departing from modern textual analysis of Wulfstan’s works, the author arrives at two consecutive conclusions: first, as an early loan from Latin thrymsa never assumed a stable value in the English monetary system likely due to the quick disappearance of coins of this name from circulation; second, Wulfstan deliberately used this term for stylistic reasons and archaization of the text as part of his ideology of an «orderly society». Some immediate consequences of this interpretation can be, first, a reappreciation of the Norðleoda laga’s source potential, and, second, retiring this text as a primary source at face value for studies in social history. This particular case study may further illustrate the ever-present necessity for a textual and source criticism in monetary history when the latter is taken as a steppingstone for broader historical conclusions and interpretations.

Key words: numismatics, monetary history, Anglo-Saxon history, source studies, wergild, Wulfstan, Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex


DOI: 10.24411/2500-0926-2021-00001

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…pacemque firmissimam teneant aggredientes et regredientes et ibi manentes. The market peace and the beginnings of the urban community in the lands of the Empire on market privileges

Borisov, G. I. …pacemque firmissimam teneant aggredientes et regredientes et ibi manentes. Rynochnyy mir i nachala gorodskoy obshchiny v zemlyakh imperii po gramotam rynochnykh privilegiy […pacemque firmissimam teneant aggredientes et regredientes et ibi manentes. The market peace and the beginnings of the urban community in the lands of the Empire on market privileges], in: Proslogion: Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Social History and Culture, 2020. Vol. 6 (1). P. 42–76.

Grigorii Borisov, PhD student, University of Tübingen, Faculty of Humanities, Seminar of Medieval History (Tübingen, Deutschland, 72074, Wilhelmstraße 36)

Language: Russian The article examines the origin of the first charters on peacekeeping for the bargaining in Europe and the forms in which they appeal to the idea of peace as fundamental for the legal regulation of market trade, the prosperity of the market and subsequently the formation of a community of townspeople. Of a particular importance is the question how influential was this early evidence of the market peace on the later emergence of urban communities in these settlements and how significant was this appeal to the idea of peace for the 10th–12th century religious movements for peace. The research is mainly based on royal and imperial diplomas of the 9th–11th centuries. The work shows that the appearance of market privileges in the royal diplomas of Otto I and Otto III was rarely associated with the initiative of the ruler, and in most cases reflected the desire of local magnates to develop trade in the lands under their control and to strengthen their positions in possible legal disputes. Equally a private initiative was the first charter, directly prescribing the observance of peace in the market in 946. Laymen could also act as initiators of the first market privileges, which included prescriptions for the protection of peace in the market, together with clergy, abbots and bishops. At the same time, the study of the history of these trading places in the Middle Ages shows that the examined charters of Otto I and Otto III with the protection of the market world later were not associated with the movement for the Peace of God and had only an indirect influence on the formation of these trading settlements of urban communities.

Key words: diplomatics, history of law, medieval market, movements for peace, Ottonian age, the Peace of God, urbanization


DOI: 10.24411/2500-0926-2021-00002

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