…pacemque firmissimam teneant aggredientes et regredientes et ibi manentes. The market peace and the beginnings of the urban community in the lands of the Empire on market privileges

Borisov, G. I. …pacemque firmissimam teneant aggredientes et regredientes et ibi manentes. Rynochnyy mir i nachala gorodskoy obshchiny v zemlyakh imperii po gramotam rynochnykh privilegiy […pacemque firmissimam teneant aggredientes et regredientes et ibi manentes. The market peace and the beginnings of the urban community in the lands of the Empire on market privileges], in: Proslogion: Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Social History and Culture, 2020. Vol. 6 (1). P. 42–76.

Grigorii Borisov, PhD student, University of Tübingen, Faculty of Humanities, Seminar of Medieval History (Tübingen, Deutschland, 72074, Wilhelmstraße 36)

Language: Russian

grigorijborisov@gmail.com The article examines the origin of the first charters on peacekeeping for the bargaining in Europe and the forms in which they appeal to the idea of peace as fundamental for the legal regulation of market trade, the prosperity of the market and subsequently the formation of a community of townspeople. Of a particular importance is the question how influential was this early evidence of the market peace on the later emergence of urban communities in these settlements and how significant was this appeal to the idea of peace for the 10th–12th century religious movements for peace. The research is mainly based on royal and imperial diplomas of the 9th–11th centuries. The work shows that the appearance of market privileges in the royal diplomas of Otto I and Otto III was rarely associated with the initiative of the ruler, and in most cases reflected the desire of local magnates to develop trade in the lands under their control and to strengthen their positions in possible legal disputes. Equally a private initiative was the first charter, directly prescribing the observance of peace in the market in 946. Laymen could also act as initiators of the first market privileges, which included prescriptions for the protection of peace in the market, together with clergy, abbots and bishops. At the same time, the study of the history of these trading places in the Middle Ages shows that the examined charters of Otto I and Otto III with the protection of the market world later were not associated with the movement for the Peace of God and had only an indirect influence on the formation of these trading settlements of urban communities.

Key words: diplomatics, history of law, medieval market, movements for peace, Ottonian age, the Peace of God, urbanization

URL: http://proslogion.ru/en/61-borisov/

DOI: 10.24411/2500-0926-2021-00002

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