Reformation and Nobility in Bohemian Lands

Bůžek, V. Reformatsiya i dvoryanstvo v cheshskikh zemlyakh [Reformation and Nobility in Bohemian Lands], in: Proslogion: Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Social History and Culture, 2018. Vol. 4 (1). P. 4669.

Václav Bůžek, doctor of History, professor, University of České Budějovice (370 05, Czech Republic, České Budějovice, Branišovská 1645/31A, České Budějovice 2)

Language: Russian

With respect to the Hussite revolution and its consequences for religious and political conditions the course of Reformation in Bohemian Lands showed unique features. The restoration of faith and individual choice of confession were there offered within approved Utraquism far into the half of 16th century and also by the Unity of the Brethren (Bohemian Brethren) which was supported by noble authorities in spite of being banned by the monarch. The early Lutheran Reformation in North Bohemia took place on manors owned by the noble families of Schlicks, Salhausens and later also Knights of Bünau where the population was mostly German-speaking and the authorities used their patronage rights to support its progression. In South Bohemia, there played a similar role the Ungnads of Sonneck who came from Styria and Carinthia. However, it is not possible to specify the confessional boundary between the Utraquism and Lutheranism without further research. The right to a personal choice of faith regardless to social status of the believer was in Bohemia granted after the failure of so-called Bohemian Confession 1575 by the publication of Letter of Majesty for religious freedom in 1609. Its breaches from the side of the king and his Catholic estates lead to the Bohemian Revolt between years 1618–1620. This period of religious tolerance ended in Bohemian Lands very soon after the defeat of reformation followers — namely Utraquists, Lutherans and Bohemian Brethren — in the battle of White Mountain. According to the Renewed Provincial Constitution (1627–1628), there was declared Roman Catholic as the only allowed confession.

Key Words: Schlicks, Salhausens, von Bünau, Maestat, Utraquists, Bohemian Brethren, Rudolph II, Anabaptists, Jan Hus, Martin Luther


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