Sons and daughters sent abroad: Successes and failures of foreign princes at the French court in the Sixteenth Century

Spangler, J. Sons and Daughters Sent Abroad: Successes and Failures of Foreign Princes at the French Court in the Sixteenth Century, in: Proslogion: Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Social History and Culture, 2017. Vol. 3 (1). P. 4889.

Jonathan Spangler, Doctor of Philology (Oxon), Manchester Metropolitan University (All Saints, Manchester M15 6BH, United Kingdom)

Language: English

In the era of centralisation of the great powers in Europe, dynasties ruling smaller states on the margins between France, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire developed strategies for survival. One of these was to establish a presence at the courts of these larger states, by sending members of the ruling dynasty itself. This article looks in particular at the court of France, where such princely emissaries established lineages known to historians as the «foreign princes», the princes étrangers. The French monarchy desired the presence of these princes as well, for various political and ceremonial reasons. The successes and failures of the foreign princes sent to the French court can be measured at the individual level and the wider dynastic level, and are examined by scrutinising activities of secular princes (male and female) as well as prelates. The results are varied, and depended on a variety of ever-shifting factors, notably the establishment of kinship ties with the royal dynasty, a solid independent financial base, and individual character. By the end of the period, some smaller states had survived; others had not.

Key Words: Foreign princes, diplomacy, sovereignty, dynasticism, France, Lorraine, Savoy, Cleves, Mantua


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The Thirty Years War or Interwaving of the conflicts?

Ivonin, Yu. E. Tridtsatiletnyaya voyna ili perepletenie konfliktov? [The Thirty Years War or Interwaving of the conflicts?], in: Proslogion: Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Social History and Culture, 2018. Vol. 4 (2). P. 142157.

Yury Evgenievich Ivonin, doctor of History, professor, Merited Scientist of Russia, Smolensk State University (214000, Rossiya, Smolensk, ulitsa Przheval’skogo, 4)

Language: Russian

The author reflects on the theme, what character the Thirty Years’ War had, the 400th Anniversary of which is taken place in 2018. He cites some definitions from the manual of the Middle Ages, «World History», the popular works of Russian authors and compares these with the number of definitions by foreign authors. He concludes that this war was simultaneously European, German and Religious war. As European war it consisted of separate little wars, which were the parts of one great all-European war in the consciousness of the contemporaries.

Key Words: Thirty Years’ War, Holy Roman Empire, Germany, Europe, religion, Emperor, princes


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