Sanzharov, V. A. Sud’ba gercogstva Normandija (1419–1450) v istoricheskom kontekste jepohi: popytka osmyslenija. Recenzija na knigu: Barone V. A. «Anglijskaja Normandija» pervoj poloviny XV v.: put’ vo Franciju» (Moskva, 2018) [The destiny of the Duchy of Normandie (1419–1450) in the historical context of the era: an attempt to comprehend. Review on: Barone V. A. «English Normandie» of the first half of the 15th century: a way to France (Moscow, 2018)], in: Proslogion: Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Social History and Culture, 2019. Vol. 5 (2). P. 157–192.
Valery Anatolievich Sanzharov Candidate of Sciences associate professor Department of World History Donetsk National University (22, ul. Universitetskaya, Donetsk, 83001)
The review is the analysis of Victoria Barone’s pioneering in Russian historiography monograph on medieval regional science, namely the Duchy of Normandie at one of the turning points in its development, i. e. at stage of choosing the vector of historical development. The author postulates a comprehensive approach to the problem that combines military, political, social and ideological aspects. The author analyzes who and how determined the vector of regional subordination — military, administrative, and propaganda efforts of the French-English and French kingdoms in their struggle for one of the key provinces. How the population of Normandie perceived the situation of «imposed» choice and new, militarized way of life (a «daily routine of occupation» by the author’s definition). How to determine the nature of war in the first half of the 15th century: in the author’s assessment of the historiographical situation, all «soldiers» (i. e. warriors of both sides) fought in a just war. How the problem of «brigandage» was solved: whether there is a «national» coloring in plunder and looting by retired «defenders of justice». The author describes the government’s measures to ensure order and discipline in military units, to solve the problem of their placement, financing and combat readiness. Victoria Barone pays special attention to the Treaty of Troyes as the legal basis for emergence of the Kingdom of two crowns, i.e. Franco-England and justification for existence of «English» or «Lancastrian» Normandie on occupied lands. Actually, this Normandie appears in the work as a process of its «elimination», and the military campaign of 1449–1450 as the completion of reconquest. The author pays much attention to the analysis of contemporary chronicles and French court lawyers’ arguments for insignificance of the English crown’s right to Normandie. Barone analyzes in detail the process of creating a «concept of the enemy» and the influence of anti-English propaganda on Norman society, asserting the thesis of forming a nationwide identity. The review makes some critical comments and wishes to the author about the possibilities of further development of the Normandie issue.
Key Words: Normandie, lieutenant général, hommage, ban, ariere-ban, échiquier, bailli, chevalier, brigandage